Neurodegenerative disorders of the brain and dementia on the USMLE Step 1 exam

Tyler York

This video describes the various neurodegenerative disorders. Dementia is a common sign of neurodegenerative diseases. Although they share common signs and symptoms they can be differentiated by onset of clinical features and histopathology findings. Most of the neurodegenerative disorders have a progressive course and curative treatment is not yet available.

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Full Neurodegenerative disorders of the brain and dementia on the USMLE Step 1 exam video transcript:

Hi, everyone. This is sujata and the founder of Gracie with Emily and Davis. Emily author that you were both in this video. I would like to discuss degenerative disorders of the brain and dementia.

So what is dementia? Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning to an extent that it interferes with day-to-day activities. Of Bryson, the common functions that are affected in dementia include memory language skills visual perception problem-solving ability to self manage and some others, it may affect a person's personality and they may not be able to control their emotions. Dementia is a common symptom of neurodegenerative disorders.

The commoner degenerative disorders are Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Lewy, Body dementia, Huntington's disease prion disease has frontotemporal dementia and fix disease.

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of Dementia in old people of Abita amyloid and abnormal Tau protein in the noodles, which is the noodles and leads to a pop ptosis and you want to sell that as a result levels of asset alkaline reduce in the brain.

Characteristic changes are seen in the hippocampus and internal cortex of the medial temporal lobe and the frontal lobe. It is associated with mutations in the priests and I'll in jeans 1 and 2. There's an increased risk with the presence of a pony, for allele and in patients who have Down syndrome.

On cross-examination of the brain. That is cerebral cortical. Atrophy, that affects the hippocampus and the entire annual cost tags. But spares the areas in the primary motor primary sensory and the visual cortex of the brain, the lateral ventricles appear to be dilated. The guy riding a narrow while selkie widen.

The diagnostic features of Alzheimer's disease on his to pass the examination neurofibrillary, Tangles and amyloid plaques, the new favorite angles are nothing. But fibrils of abnormally phosphorylated, tell protein of beta, pleated sheet of a betta amyloid deposits.

Frontotemporal. Dementia is most common cause of Dementia in people under the age of 60 years. It is characterized by Progressive degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. It presents with dementia and personality changes such as loss of emotional control. Disinhibition acceptor

On his soup at examination in front of temporal Dimension. Are there is characteristic of actualization of The Superficial cortex, also known as spongiosis. Other changes include loss of neurons and gliosis to differentiate frontotemporal, dementia from Alzheimer's disease. It is important to remember that now has Lyme's disease. Dementia occurs first, where is infantile? Temporal dimensions of personality changes precede, the onset of dementia in advanced stages, both of them are clinically similar.

Fifth's disease is a type of frontotemporal, dementia. That is characterized by the presence of Tau positive, cytoplasmic inclusion in neurons of the frontal temporal lobes details are cordless pixels, and the deposits are called a speak bodies.

Parkinson's disease, presents with the rigidity resting Tremors. Also call SPM, Rollin Tremors abnormal, gait like festinating, gait and shuffling, gait must face autonomic in disturbances and dementia.

Mutations in alphas and queen, which is a synoptic protein and coded by the snc, a gene on chromosome, for a mutations in park and Gene are seen in Parkinson's disease. Exposure to toxins like arsenic mp3pn. Phenothiazines, increase your risk for Parkinson's Disease, patients suffering from gosh's disease and Wilson's disease, have a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease.

Alpha-synuclein deposits in the dopamine, secreting neurons of the substantia nigra which leads to sell her and it interferes with the functions of the cell.

Andros examination. There is depigmentation of the substantia nigra on histopath examination. The alpha-synuclein deposits can be seen as erosion of public intracytoplasmic deposits, which are also known as Lewy bodies.

Lewy Body dementia is clinically and Faso physiology clay similar to Parkinson's disease. It can be differentiated by Parkinson's Disease by the timing of dementia and movement disorders.

In Louis body dementia. The dementia appears within the first year of parkinsonism while in Parkinson's, disorder the movement disorders they appear before the onset of dementia is characterized by the presence of REM sleep behavior disorder for example, acting out in dreams and also by visual hallucinations along with the dementia.

In Progressive supranuclear palsy. There is dementia. Along with difficulties with balance, which may cause frequent Falls and movement disorders of the eye. Like they may be blepharospasm inability to open the I or problems with blinking which me make the eye, dry and red.

Huntington's disease, is an inherited autosomal dominant condition. That is characterized by dementia. Along with abnormal jerky preaching moments call Korea and emotional and behavioral and personality changes.

It is caused by mutations in the Huntington or HTT genes, which leads to an abnormal number of cagr Care Group, 8 which are nothing. But cytosine, adenine and guanine.

There is a trophy of the caudate nucleus and a reduction in the levels of Gaba, acetylcholine and glutamate in the brain.

All prion diseases are characterized by abnormal folding of the prion proteins. They may be idiopathic iatrogenic or inherited inherited prion. Diseases are caused by mutations in the gene that codes for prion protein, which is called as a PR impeaching iatrogenic conditions may result after corneal transplants. After implantation of human dura, mater or implantation of treatment with category pituitary extract.

Coatesville Jakob disease is one of the very common prion diseases diseases, are characterized by Progressive, dementia myoclonus, hallucinations Etc, self transmissible and are invariably fatal.

The abnormality in prion disease, is the conversion of normally soluble prion protein, which is PRP to an insoluble version of the prion protein called specs, the insoluble prion. Protein, cannot be realized by protea, lactic enzymes, called proteases, and forms deposits within the neurons, which causes able to sit and sell it.

For more details on neurodegenerative disorders, I would like you to refer to a syllable u.s. Emily online. Textbook. Section 4, plain 2.54, pathology of the Central and peripheral nervous system.

Hope you like today sweetie. Oh, thank you for watching.
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