Analyzing common laboratory investigations on the USMLE Step 1 exam

Tyler York

This video explains how to interpret common laboratory investigations with respect to the USMLE. SGOT and SGPT are often elevated together in many disorders but one of them may be proportionately elevated more than the other, which can give important clues for diagnosis of diseases. Alkaline phosphatase is elevated in various diseases but in the presence of liver involvement, it is specific for obstructive jaundice.

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Full Analyzing common laboratory investigations on the USMLE Step 1 exam video transcript:

Hello everybody. I'm the job. In this video we will discuss about analyzing calm laboratory investigations with respect to the US, Emily

Let's begin by discussing sgot-ast and superalts, which can be seen in many different conditions, like hepatitis hepatic, carcinomas sepsis xcetera.

S t o t s in mitochondrial in time why is CPT is a cytoplasmic enzyme levels are elevated. When there is my brain damage for alcoholic liver disease in comparison to sgpt and there is a relative increase in sgot in alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic. Hepatitis Raiders in infectious, hepatitis supd is relatively more elevated.

Dgtl. Alkaline phosphatase ggt or gamma glutamyl. Transferase is an endoplasmic, reticulum enzyme that is induced by alcohol. Increase levels are seen in alcoholic liver disease, chronic alcoholics and also in disorders of the binder.

Alkaline. Phosphatase is a cell membrane inside whose levels are elevated when there is cell membrane damage, it has various isoforms and levels can be elevated. In many disorders, involving the bone bone marrow infections sepsis, liver diseases, Cancers. And many other disorders.

In a patient who has jaundice, if there is elevation of alkaline phosphatase, then it's the chest and obstructive disorder of the bile duct and ability Tree in patients with leukemia a form of alkaline phosphatase is reduced in level.

Coupling T and troponin-i. Both opponents are elevated in acute, myocardial infarction. But you should also keep in mind that our son other disorders like renal failure. Cardiac from subarachnoid hemorrhage pulmonary embolism in which levels of proponents will be elevated. Also

Amylase and lipase levels of both enzymes are elevated in many disorders. Involving the gastrointestinal tract levels of elevated in salivary, gland disorders, like Mom's celebrity Ducks Jones, it may be increased in gastroenteritis cholecystitis xcetera,

In a patient presenting with acute, pancreatitis and lipase, both are tested on Miley's is sensitive, but it is not specific. Life is much more specific for the diagnosis of acute, pancreatitis.

direct and indirect bilirubin, bilirubin levels are elevated in all patients, who have jaundice, bilirubin is a breakdown product of him, it is of two forms, direct also is conjugated, and indirect also called as unconjugated bilirubin

Direct bilirubin is produced in the liver by the action of the enzyme glucuronyl transferase by conjugating indirect or unconjugated bilirubin with blucurrent bank acid, which makes it more water soluble so that it can be easily excreted in the kidney.

Indirect or unconjugated bilirubin cannot be excreted in the urine, it is produced due to excessive are busy break down so much that it overwhelms, the capacity of the liver to produce conjugated bilirubin.

unconjugated bilirubin is still lipid-soluble and it can cross the blood-brain barrier in susceptible individuals like newborns

Total bilirubin can be calculated as a sum or total of the direct and indirect bilirubin direct bilirubin levels, can be elevated in various types of hepatitis like why do hepatitis alcoholic? Hepatitis, some inherited are congenital disorders like dubin-johnson syndrome, rotor Syndrome, X Factor,

Direct bilirubin levels can also be elevated in fatty liver gallstones, bile duct disorders, hemochromatosis, Wilson's, disorders, autoimmune disorders, of the liver, like primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

And I believe a woman can be elevated in disorders. Such as hemolytic, anemia is Gilbert Syndrome. Crigler-najjar syndrome, breast milk, jaundice can find hematoma and physiology of the new Bond.

Hope you understood how to interpret common laboratory findings that you will find in USMLE questions. Thanks for watching all the best.
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